Formal Ethics Opinions

The Committee on Professional Ethics issues two types of advisory opinions. Formal Opinions, published below, provide general guidance to lawyers admitted to practice in New York state concerning their obligations under the New York Rules of Professional Conduct (the "New York Rules"). Informal Opinions are issued in response to specific inquiries by lawyers admitted to practice in New York state, and are not published on the New York City Bar website. For information on how to request an Informal Opinion, please click here.

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Formal Opinion 2013-2: A lawyer’s obligation to take action if, after the conclusion of a proceeding, the lawyer comes to know that material evidence offered by the lawyer, the lawyer’s client or a witness called by the lawyer during the proceeding was false.

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Formal Opinion 2013-1: Duties to Prospective Clients After Beauty Contests and Other Preliminary Meetings

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Formal Opinion 2012-2: Jury Research And Social Media

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Formal Opinion 2012-1: Obligations Upon Receiving A Document Not Intended For The Recipient

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Formal Opinion 2011-2: Third Party Litigation Financing

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Formal Opinion 2011-1: Contacting Former Clients Represented by Successor Counsel

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Formal Opinion 2010-3: Settlement Agreements Requiring the Financial Assistance of Counsel

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Formal Opinion 2010-2: Obtaining Evidence From Social Networking Websites

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Formal Opinion 2010-1: Use of Client Engagement Letters To Authorize the Return or Destruction of Client Files at the Conclusion of a Matter

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Formal Opinion 2009-5: Discouraging Unrepresented Witnesses from Voluntarily Cooperating with Adversaries

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Formal Opinion 2009-4: Payments for Pro Bono Referrals

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Formal Opinion 2009-3: Conflicts Arising When Hiring Law School Graduates Who Participate in Law School Legal Clinics

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